Friendship ended with the garbage collector

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It's been a while since the last update about my work on the Inko programming language. Not because there hasn't been any progress, but because I've been busy making changes. A lot of changes.

For the past two years or so I have been toying with the idea of replacing Inko's garbage collector with something else. The rationale for this is that at some point, all garbage collected languages run into the same issue: the workload is too great for the garbage collector to keep up.

The solutions to such problems vary. Sometimes one has to spend hours tweaking garbage collection settings. Such settings often lack good documentation, and are highly dependent on the infrastructure used to run the software. Other times one has to use hacks such as allocating a 10 GB byte array.

This got me thinking: what if for Inko I got rid of the garbage collector entirely, preventing users from running into these problems? After spending some time looking into this (see this issue for more details), I decided to postpone the idea. I wasn't able to come up with a good solution at the time, so I decided to take another look at it in the future.

Earlier this year I read the paper "Ownership You Can Count On: A Hybrid Approach to Safe Explicit Memory Management". This paper is from 2006, and describes a single ownership model for managing memory. The approach outlined is pretty straightforward: you have owned values, and references. When an owned value goes out of scope, it's deallocated. When creating a reference, you increment a counter stored in the owned value the reference points to. When the reference goes out of scope, the count is reduced. When an owned value goes out of scope and its reference count is not zero, the program terminates with an error (which I'll refer to as a "panic").

Of course this approach has its own downside: a program may panic at when dropping an owned value, if it still has one or more references pointing to it. This is something you can prevent from happening (at least as much as possible) using compiler analysis. Since you still have a runtime mechanism to fall back to, this analysis doesn't have to be perfect. The result is that you can decide how you want to balance developer productivity, correctness, and the complexity of the implementation.

In contrast, Rust has a strict and complex ownership model. This model ensures that if your program compiles (and you don't use unsafe code), you won't run into memory related issues such as dangling references or use-after-free errors. The trade-off here is extra complexity, not being able to implement certain patterns in safe code (e.g. linked lists), and possibly more.

The approach outlined here was compelling enough for me to take another look at using a single ownership model for Inko. Along the way, I found out about a language called Vale, which draws inspiration from the same paper.

The current status

Replacing the garbage collector with a single ownership model (amongst other changes I'm making) is what I have been working on since March 2021. The progress is tracked in the merge request "Single ownership, move semantics, and a new memory layout". Besides introducing a single ownership model, the merge request introduces changes such as (but not limited to):

Processes and messages

A big change that is the direct result of the single ownership model is how processes send messages to each other. The released version of Inko takes an approach similar to Erlang: each process has its own heap, and messages are deep copied when sent. This removes the need for sharing memory, which in turn removes the need for synchronisation. The cost is having to deep copy objects. This can be time consuming, and handling circular objects is a challenge. Copying of some objects can also fail at runtime (e.g. sockets), but there wasn't a nice way of handling this.

When you use a single ownership model, you don't need copying. Instead, you just transfer ownership to the receiving process. This also means you don't have to maintain a heap per process. Instead, you can maintain a heap per OS thread (to allow for fast thread-local allocations), as the ownership model guarantees no two processes can access the same object concurrently. The result is a nicer language, type-safe message passing, a reduction in memory usage due to processes being smaller, and lots of other improvements.

To illustrate this, here is a simple example of implementing a distributed counter:

async class Counter {
  @number: UnsignedInt

  async def increment {
    @number += 1

  async def get -> UnsignedInt {

def main {
  let counter = Counter { @number = 0 }

  counter.get # => 2

Defining processes is done using async class. When you create an instance of an async class, a lightweight process (not an OS process) is spawned that owns the instance. The process that created the instance is given a value of type async T, or async Counter in the above example. This type acts as the client, with the process acting as a server. Clients can be copied and sent to other processes.

Messages are essentially remote procedure calls, and look like regular method calls. When you create a process with one or more fields, or pass arguments along with your message, the ownership of the values is transferred to the receiving process. A few types can't be sent to different processes, such as references, closures, and generators.

Message processing happens in FIFO order. When all clients disconnect, and the process has no more messages to process, the process runs its destructor and terminates.

When you send a message, the sender waits for a result to be produced, without blocking the OS thread the process is running on. If you instead want a future to resolve later, you can use the async keyword (async counter.get instead of counter.get).

Circular types

In languages with single ownership, circular types such as doubly linked lists can be tricky to implement, typically requiring unsafe code such as raw pointers. In Inko, such types are easy to implement:

class DoublyLinkedList[T] {
  @head: ?Node[T]

class Node[T] {
  @value: T
  @next: ?Node[T]
  @prev: ?ref Node[T]

Here ?T is syntax sugar for Option[T], meaning it's an optional value. ref T is a reference to an owned value of type T.

We don't need destructors, as Inko drops fields in reverse lexical order. For our linked list example with nodes A and B (with B coming after A), the drop order is as follows:

1. A @prev
2. A @next --> 3. B @prev
               4. B @next
               5. B @value
6. B
7. A @value
8. A

When we reach step 8, the reference from B to A is dropped, so no error is produced.

For more complex types a custom destructor may be needed to drop fields in a different order, though such cases should be rare. Even then, you won't need any unsafe code.

Generics support both owned values and references

A challenge identified in the ownership paper is allowing generic types to support both owned values and references. The paper doesn't provide a solution, and instead mentions implementing different types (so one Array type for owned values, and one for references).

Inko will start by using pointer tagging to differentiate between owned values and references. We already use pointer tagging for immediate values, and had an extra bit to spare anyway. Any generic code that isn't inlined will use a runtime check of this bit when dropping a generically typed value.

I decided against the use of monomorphisation for several reasons:

In the future Inko may use a different approach, but for the time being pointer tagging should be good enough.

Heap layout

A benefit of garbage collected languages is that they can allocate and reclaim memory such that allocations are fast, and fragmentation is kept low. Inko retains the Immix heap layout and bump allocator. To reuse memory and combat fragmentation, Inko threads scans a chunk of their heap before running a process. When a reusable block of memory is found, it's moved to the end of the heap after the allocation position. Scanning is done incrementally, ensuring that each scan takes a fixed maximum amount of time. Objects are never moved around, as doing so requires traversing all live objects (or read barriers) to update pointers to the moved objects.

While this approach doesn't fully mitigate fragmentation, I believe it should be good enough for the foreseeable future.

Remaining work

While work on the new virtual machine is finished, I'm still working on the new compiler. As part of this I'll also need to rewrite parts of the self-hosting compiler code written thus far. I suspect it will take a few more months before the work is finished. I'm super excited about these changes, and I hope they will make Inko a more compelling language to use. They will also make Inko a much faster language.

If you'd like to stay up to date on the progress made, I recommend joining Inko's Matrix channel, or subscribing to /r/inko on Reddit.